Kunming Institute of plants for the first time successfully deciphered tea genomeUpdated: 2017-5-3 14:48:00 Views: 3476
Tea is the world's oldest and most widely consumed caffeinated soft drinks, currently 3 billion people in more than 160 countries around the world love tea, tea is generally believed, Tea originated in China's Yunnan, Sichuan and other places, as the spread of Chinese culture Messenger, in the tea from China to spread around the world for thousands of years of long history, with more than 100 countries around the world diverse cultural encounters, the development of the formation of the earth complex and wonderful tea culture.In addition to because of the charming aroma and pleasant taste, tea contains many features ingredients, polyphenols, theanine, caffeine, vitamins, and minerals such as aromatic oils, making tea for medical and health immeasurable value. Today, tea is commercially grown on every continent in the world's more than 3.8 million hectares of land to 2014, for example, world tea production capacity of up to 5.56 million tons, not only tea but also has huge economic in the world in China, medicine, scientific research and cultural values .
The world's three major beverage plants in the coffee and cocoa genome has been completed by the European and American countries sequencing.Chinese Academy of Sciences Kunming Institute of Plant researcher Gao Lizhi led the plant germplasm resources, genomics and bioinformatics research team in 2010 for the first time in Internationally launched a tea tree genome project, through the genome building and sequencing and other key experimental techniques to master and genome sequence splicing, annotation and analysis of bioinformatics platform construction, to overcome the tea high heterozygous, high repetition and genome huge plants Genome sequencing problems, joint research team of South China Agricultural University, Yunnan Agricultural University, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Liaoning Normal University, Yunnan Tea Science Research Institute, Jinhua International Camellia Garden, Huazhong Agricultural University and Washington University and other units of the research team, (Camellia sinensis var. Assamica) was sequenced and assembled at the international level. The high quality genomic reference sequence of about 3.02 billion base pairs was obtained, and 36,951 protein sequences were obtained. gene.
The results showed that the genomic sequence of tea tree genome was very high, accounting for 80.9% of the whole genome. In the past 50 million years, the long terminal repeats of the tea genome had experienced a large number of bursts, Coupled with their long-term and slowly amplified but the lack of effective DNA deletion mechanism, leading to tea tree genome has become very large, the study found that the largest long-terminal repeat sequence reverse transposon family accounts for about 36.79% of the genome of tea, which is The single long-terminal repeat sequence of the retrotransposon family was expanded and survived in the plant genome for up to 50 million years of the first report.The study also found that tea has recently had a genome-wide repeat event, tea tree genome and tea aroma The genome of genes such as flavonoids and terpenoids, which are closely related to flavor and quality, are significantly amplified. In addition to the large number of genes involved in the synthesis of flavonoids and terpenoid biosynthesis, which promote the environmental adaptability of tea trees, natural selection promotes the growth of a large number of disease-resistant gene family resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses tea, interpretation of why tea It can become a worldwide beverage plants worldwide spread and widely grown in different climates in Asia, Africa, Europe, North America, South America and Oceania diverse habitats.
There are as many as 119 species of camellia trees, an important but long-puzzled question is why only the leaves of tea plants are suitable for tea rather than tea plants such as camellia, camellia and camellia leaves that are well known as tea drink. the research team for most groups of plants and tea plants on behalf of non-tea group of a total of 25 species Camellia determine suitable system and quality tea three main characteristic ingredients (catechins or polyphenols, tea ammonia Acid and caffeine were analyzed by phytochemical composition. It was found that tea plants and other tea plants were rich in tea polyphenols and caffeine and were different from non-tea species, such as characteristic components of EGCG, EGC, C , EC, ECG content between the tea group species vary widely but significantly higher than non-tea group of species, and theanine content was not significantly different, indicating high levels of polyphenols and caffeine can determine the Camellia plant Whether it is suitable for tea and tea flavor. Based on the genomic sequences obtained in the tea genome, the gene sequences related to tea polyphenols, theanine and caffeine biosynthesis, the comparative genomics study in the study team found that tea group and non-tea group species Possession of genes associated with the characteristic tea Biosynthesis, illustrates the biosynthetic pathway of the three characteristic ingredients of tea at about 6.3 million years ago had been formed in the common ancestor of Camellias years and is highly conserved today.
Comparative transcriptomics study further found that the synthesis of polyphenols and caffeine-related gene expression level in the biological key Thea significantly higher than the non Thea, but the expression patterns of genes related to the biosynthesis of theanine there was no significant difference between the two, indicating that the expression patterns of different polyphenols and caffeine metabolic pathway genes determine a suitable system as the tea plant Camellia, quality and taste of tea, coffee and tea polyphenols because of the huge difference in the metabolic pathway of gene expression resulted in different species in different groups of tea polyphenols and coffee-rich and thus form a variety of flavors of tea. studies show that wild relatives thick shaft tea tea contains very High tea polyphenols but very low caffeine, with the great potential to cultivate new varieties of tea, tea group of cultivated tea tree wild relatives of the species due to the rich and excellent new genes, is the future of tea quality improvement of the huge treasure.
A comparative genomics analysis of the three major beverage plants revealed that the evolution of the caffeine biosynthetic pathway reported in the coffee genome was found to be independent of the coffee and caffeine biosynthetic pathways in tea and cocoa. Further analysis found that the caffeine biosynthetic pathway of tea trees and other camellia plants may originate from cocoa but later undergoes independent evolution, for the first time confirming the rapid and independent evolution of the caffeine biosynthetic pathway in the near future.
The successful mapping of the high quality genomic map of tea tree reveals the genetic basis for determining the adaptability, flavor and quality of tea and the global ecological adaptability of tea trees. It will greatly accelerate the study of functional genomics of tea trees and explore new genes and accelerate the quality of tea And the cultivation of new varieties of tea.
Undoubtedly, the first genome of Camellia is sure to contribute to the study of comparative genomics of Camellia, and a thorough understanding of the evolution of genomes and genes of Camellia, which greatly contributes to the world's four major woody plants A tea plantation, the world's top ten famous camellia flower and known as the 'plant giant panda' Golden Flower tea genetics and breeding. Large-scale phytochemistry, transcription and functional synthesis of the database, will greatly promote the characteristics of tea tree biosynthesis Pathways of metabolomics and functional genomics analysis, to promote and attract more and more people around the world to cultivate a variety of tea varieties of tea flavor of the new varieties of tea made of wild tea produced in the market a lot of money So that these precious natural resources suffered a lot of serious damage, tea tree high quality genome sequence and a large number of transcriptome variation of the data obtained will promote the global wild tea germplasm resources genetic protection.Chinese tea genome map is also completed with its unique Technology and cultural charm to help 'along the way', in the new years to tea as a carrier once again to the global delivery Culture.
The above results are another landmark achievement obtained by the research team led by the five wild rice genome maps, marking the national large scientific plant China Southwest Wildlife Germplasm Resources Genomics, Germplasm Resources and Bioinformatics Research team and platform construction has made important progress, will be China and Yunnan rich wild plant germplasm resources research, protection and excavation and utilization have an important impact, the results on May 1 to the tea tree genome provided insights into tea flavor and Independent evolution of caffeine biosynthesis published in the << Molecular Plant >> (Molecular Plant, the research team Dr. Xia Enhua, Zhang Haibin, Zhang Qunjie, Yunnan Agricultural University professor Sheng Jun, master Li Kui tied for the first author.
The research project has been supported by the project of Yunnan Province, the introduction of high-end science and technology talents, the introduction of hundreds of overseas high-level talents in Yunnan Province, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Yunnan Provincial Natural Science Foundation and the '100 Talents Program' of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Fig.1 Evolution of LTR retrotransposon in tea tree genome
Figure 2 Tea genome and gene family evolution?
Figure 3 25 kinds of Camellia plant composition and comparative transcriptomics research
Figure 4 Evolution of tea tree, coffee and cocoa caffeine synthase genes
Editor: Chen Yan SN225
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